Biostatistics Dissertation

Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists

A Practical Approach

Robert C. Elston

Office of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

William D. Johnson

Pennington Biomedical Research Centre, Louisiana Express University Program, USA.

A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Distribution

Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists

Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists

A Practical Way

Robert C. Elston

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

William D. Meeks

Pennington Biomedical Research Centre, Louisiana Point out University System, USA.

A John Wiley and Kids, Ltd, Publication

This edition first printed 2008 © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Limited Registered office John Wiley & Daughters Ltd, The Atrium, The southern area of Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, intended for customer services and for information regarding how to sign up for permission to reuse the copyright materials in this book please observe our website at The right in the author to be identified while the author of the work has become asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Action 1988. Every rights reserved. No element of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, documenting or otherwise, other than as allowed by the UK Copyright, Designs and Us patents Act 1988, without the prior permission in the publisher. Wiley also posts its literature in a variety of electronic digital formats. Several content that appears on the web may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by firms to distinguish their products are often claimed as art logos. All brand names and item names utilized in this book happen to be trade brands, service signifies, trademarks or perhaps registered logos of their individual owners. The publisher is usually not connected with any merchandise or merchant mentioned with this book. This kind of publication is made to provide correct and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It really is sold around the understanding that the publisher can be not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or different expert assistance is required, the services of a competent specialist should be desired. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Elston, Robert C., 1932– Basic biostatistics intended for geneticists and epidemiologists: an affordable approach as well as Robert C. Elston, William D. Manley. p.; centimeter. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-02489-8 (hbk) — ISBN 978-0-470-02490-4 (pbk. ) 1 ) Medical figures. 2 . Medical genetics—Statistical methods. 3. Epidemiology—Statistical methods. We. Johnson, Bill Davis, 1941– II. Name. [DNLM: 1 . Biometry—methods. 2 . Info Collection. three or more. Epidemiologic Methods. 4. Genetics, Medical. CALIFORNIA 950 E49b 2008] R853. S7E48 2008 610. 72—dc22 2008038609 A catalogue record for this publication is available in the British Library ISBN 978-0-470-02489-8 (Hbk) ISBN 978-0-470-02490-4 (Pbk) Set in 11/13. 5pt Newcaledonia by Integra Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, India Printed in britain by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire


PREFACE 1 INTRO: THE ROLE AND RELEVANCE OF STATS, GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MEDICINE So why Biostatistics? What is (Are) Figures? Reasons for Understanding Statistics Precisely what is Genetics? What Exactly is Epidemiology? Just how can a Statistician Help Geneticists and Epidemiologists? Disease Reduction versus Disease Therapy A couple of Examples: Genes, Epidemiology and Statistical Inference Summary Sources 2 FOULE, SAMPLES, AND STUDY DESIGN The Study of Trigger and Result Populations, Concentrate on Populations and Study Units Probability Samples and Randomization Observational Research Family Research Experimental Studies Quasi-Experimental Research Summary Further Reading...